Palace – located at the hub of the axis of symmetry of the entire complex and situated at in its highest point. It is the visible symbol of the superiority of its owner to all other people and displays wealth and might.
Plain (flat) plot of land.
The main entrance is situated in the lower part of the garden so that guests can admire the grandeur of the entire composition upon entry.
Square pools and reservoirs with standing water, fountains, cascades and waterfalls.
Paths of coloured sand and gravel.
Symmetrically grown group of trees.
Topiary elements – cut green espaliers, labyrinths and exotic figures. During regular trimming the crowns of the trees and bushes are given exact geometrical shapes. These may be spheres, cones, pyramids, cubes, discs, spirals or columns. Conifers – cypress, thuja, grey fir, blue spruce. Deciduous trees – holly, laurel, lime tree, hornbeam, privet, spindle tree, hawthorn, barberry, potentilla, cotoneaster, meadowsweet, maple, decorative plums and apples.
Coats of arms, monograms, emblems from flowers and herbs.
Small sculptures and sculptural compositions.
Park flower gardens and flowerbeds, roses.
There were special decorations for various faerie shows, concerts and receptions with balls, and all kinds of different entertainments and masquerades: open and water-based theatre, water parterres and staircases, private grottos, intimate pavilions and cabins, bizarre fountains, allegorical sculptures.
Landscape style of gardening
The plot repeats the relief of the surrounding area, the features of its landscape. The relief is uneven: flat plots, altitudes, slopes and ravines alternate.
Asymmetry, lack of straight lines or axes.
Winding paths connect different elements of the garden. The paths are made of natural materials: crude stone, cuts from tree trunks, hardwearing grass, gravel coating or paving slabs of natural stone, fenced with brier hedges, cotoneaster, and the walls are entwined in partenocissus.
There is a well thought-out system of paths; by following them one can see changes of picturesque landscapes. There is not one point from which the entire garden may be seen, the prospect is revealed gradually.
Houses, in the garden and in any place. The outlines of the houses and veiled with greenery.
Around the house – a velvet lawn, garden flowers.
Terraces, urns and planters are used near the walls of the house as elements of designGroups of trees with private places. Spreading old trees. Compositions of trees and bushes, combinations of colours and textures in the leaves.
Blooming bushes – jasmine, hydrangea and lilac.
Pergola, wrapped in perennial flowers and roses.
An area for tea parties.
Plants which attract bees are vital to the garden. They will attract butterflies, bees and other insects, bringing an additional charm to the design.
All pools, even those of artificial origin, must have a clearly defined natural character: uneven edges, natural outline (pebble, sand, semi-aquatic plants). The edges of the pond may be decorated with day lilies, iris, euphorbia, ferns. Lily pads on the pond.
Bridges over streams and rivers are in the form of an arch.
There is no bare ground or paths laid with tiles.
Water is at the centre of the garden. It may be a pond, fountain, or channel. Not too large, but visible from every point of the garden.
Water flows from the fountain or the pond through channels to the corners of the garden at the cardinal points.
If the garden is of correct form, then the channels divide it into four equal squares and if the Moorish Garden is large enough, each of the big squares can also be divided equally into four smaller squares.
Geometrical accuracy and regularity of lay-out.
Plan of the garden resembles eastern patterns.
Vegetation is not pruned and fills all the space between paths and pools.
The free spaces are filled with decorative tiles or stone.
Do not use statues or fountains depicting figures or human faces.
The fountain is not usually under pressure to send the jets of water high. It is a small babbling brook, which flows from high vases set in the centre of the pond.
Pergolas, arches and covered galleries, entwined with flowers and wild grapes.